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Breast Cancer

The role of genetic testing and risk stratification in breast cancer prevention and screening

Our understanding of breast cancer has notably evolved from the early ancient times when this malignancy was described as the “black bile containing crab like tumors” by Hippocrates 460 BCE. The advent of modern medicine revolutionized our approach to breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, and further progress was achieved over the past few decades. Our therapies have exponentially improved to match the complexities of this multifaceted malignancy.


Diagnosis and surgical management of early stage breast cancer

Breast cancer has become the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, surpassing lung cancer in 2021. While breast cancer mortality has decreased in high-income countries, it continues to be elevated in low-middle and low-income countries


Breast Cancer Pharmacology

Breast cancer therapies encompass a wide array of medications from different drug classes depending on the cancer’s receptor status. The chapter below will broadly discuss evidence-based therapies for breast cancer including endocrine agents, targeted agents (both oral and intravenous), immunotherapies, and chemotherapies. Please refer to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for the most up to date recommendations or specific citations from this chapter or the guidelines for clinical trial specific information.


Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed malignancy in the world, following lung cancer. Every year, nearly two million women across the globe are diagnosed with breast cancer. It is also the leading cause of cancer mortality in women in the world. Fortunately, with advances in screening and systemic therapies, breast cancer outcomes are improving.

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