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Management of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and women


Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed in women and the third most common in men, accounting for nearly 900,000 deaths worldwide each year


Personalized Colorectal Cancer Management in Older Adults: Summary and Recommendations

A globally aging population has brought about an increasing number of older adults who require surgical intervention for a variety of ailments, including colorectal cancer. 


Palliative Care for Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosed worldwide, and accounts for 8% of all cancer deaths


Colon and Rectal Cancer Pharmacology Review

Overview[1-9] Epidemiology Risk Factors Molecular testing Clinical Presentation Staging: TNM (tumor, nodes, metastasis) staging system Colon Cancer Treatment [7,9] Surgery: Radiation: Minimal role as rates of distant recurrences are higher than local recurrences Systemic Therapy: Table 1: Summary of NCCN guidelines for adjuvant therapy for early stage colon cancer Adjuvant Treatment for Early Stage Colon […]


Surgical Management of Recurrent Rectal Cancer

Many changes have occurred in the management of rectal cancer in the last several decades. These changes have included transition of radiation and chemotherapy to the neoadjuvant setting, new and improved chemotherapy regimens, and focus on high quality surgery with total mesorectal excision. Together, this change in strategy has resulted in a dramatic decrease in local recurrence rates from 20% down to approximately 10%.


Young-Onset Colorectal Cancer: Current State of Knowledge and Future Perspectives

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide


Rectal Cancer: Local Excision

Local excision for a rectal tumor dates back to the early 1800s, with a report by Dr. Jacques Lisfranc describing excision of a benign rectal mass in the lower rectum.


The Role of Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (TaTME) in the Surgical Management of Rectal Cancer

The oncologic principle of total mesorectal excision (TME), introduced by Heald and colleagues,[1] involves dissection along the mesorectal fascial plane and removing the rectum and mesorectum as one intact specimen. TME is associated with decreased local recurrence and improved cancer-free survival rates and remains the gold standard surgical technique for rectal cancer. Laparoscopic TME has since been demonstrated to have better short-term and long-term surgical outcomes with no significant oncologic differences in local recurrence and disease-free survival in comparison to the open approach


Surgical Management of Patients with Rectal Cancer: LAR/APR

Management of rectal cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach, which includes: oncology, pathology, radiation oncology, radiology, genetics, ostomy consultation and colorectal surgery


Workup and Evaluation of Patients with Rectal Cancer

Rectal cancer is among the most common malignancies, making up 9.4% of all new cancer diagnoses with an estimated worldwide incidence of over 700,000 cases in 2020


Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Colon and Rectum

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the colon and rectum are a rare malignancy. NETs represent about 1% of colonic malignancies and about 2% of rectal malignancies


Desmoid tumors

Desmoid Tumors (DTs) are locally aggressive but non-metastasizing, deep-seated, monoclonal fibroblastic neoplasms with an annual incidence of 5 to 6 cases per million.


Melanoma of unknown primary

Melanoma of unknown primary (MUP) accounts for 3-4% of melanoma cases and consists of pathologically confirmed melanoma metastases involving the lymph nodes, subcutaneous tissues and/or visceral without an identifiable primary after adequate workup


Update on Management of Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women with 528,000 new cases and 266,000 deaths globally in 2012. More than 85% of cervical cancer related deaths occur in underdeveloped regions of the world.


Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Appendix

Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are the most commonly diagnosed neoplasms of the appendix, comprising approximately 50% of all appendiceal cancers


Management of Adnexal Masses

Adnexal masses (masses of the ovary, fallopian tube, surrounding connective tissues, or other pelvic organ systems that occur near the adnexa) are common and may be discovered in females of any age.


Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) in Gynecologic Oncology

Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) pathways were developed as a tool to optimize the body’s response to the altered physiological state induced by intraoperative stress. Specifically, the catabolic state experienced during surgery leads to alterations in cardiac, respiratory, and gastrointestinal function, while also affecting tissue metabolic function


Managing Nausea in the Cancer Patient Population

Nausea is an unpleasant sensation of feeling the need to vomit, which often but does not always precede vomiting (emesis). Although nausea is a common symptom among patients with various end-stage illnesses, it is especially prevalent in patients with advanced cancer


Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

Introduction Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive primary malignancy of the pleural surface. Most cases of MPM are associated with previous asbestos exposure with a reported latency period of approximately 40 years.[1, 2] Within the United States the current incidence of MPM is reported to be between 2,000 and 3,000 cases per year.[3] It […]


Extremity and Trunk Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Extremity and trunk soft tissue sarcomas (ETSTS) constitute a broad group of histologically diverse tumors which make clinical management challenging. There are more than 70 recognized subtypes of sarcoma, each with distinct biology and clinical course. Extremity and trunk locations make up nearly 80% of all soft tissue sarcomas


Management of the Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy among men in the Western hemisphere. In the United States (US), PCa accounts for approximately 11% of all new cancer diagnoses and 4% of all cancer deaths, accounting for 191,930 new cases and 33,330 deaths in 2020


Cancer and recommendations for Covid-19 vaccination

Several national and international health organizations recommend that current and recent cancer patients should be fully vaccinated against COVID-19


Malignant Pleural Effusion

Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) indicates advanced disease and incidence is expected to increase with increase in cancer diagnoses and longer survival as cancer therapies evolve. Malignant pleural effusion is most commonly seen in lung cancer, breast cancer, and lymphoma and is associated with poor survival, median of 3-12 months after diagnosis, depending on tumor type, comorbidities, functional status


Esophageal Cancer: symptoms, staging and treatment

Esophageal cancer is the seventh most common cancer among men and the 13th most common cancer among women, making it the eighth most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide


Gastric Adenocarcinoma

Gastric cancer is the third-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, accounting for approximately 1 in 12 of all oncologic deaths (Rawla; Global Cancer Observatory). In 2018, there were an estimated 783,000 gastric cancer deaths, just behind those reported for lung and liver cancer deaths. Gastric cancer is the fifth-most common cancer worldwide with over one million new cases annually. East Asia has the highest incidence of gastric cancer. Overall, the incidence and number of deaths attributable to gastric cancer has risen over the past 2-3 decades (GBD stomach).


Pancreatic Cancer

There will be approximately 57,600 new pancreatic cancer diagnoses in the United States in 2020. While the incidence has been stable over the last decade in the United States at a rate of 12.3-12.8 cases per 100,000 persons, worldwide, the incidence of pancreatic cancer has risen 2.3-fold since 1990, resulting in 400,000 deaths in 2017 alone


Current Diagnostics and Treatments for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) arise from endocrine cells, sometimes referred to as islet cells, within the pancreas. The hormone producing islet cells cluster into small groups, known as islets of Langerhans, or simply islets, throughout the pancreas


Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

Cholangiocarcinomas (CCA) are a heterogenous group of rare malignancies that arise from the biliary tract epithelium. CCA subtypes, which include intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA), perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA), and distal cholangiocarcinoma (dCCA), have distinct anatomic, biologic, and molecular characteristics. iCCAs arise proximal to the second order bile ducts


The Diagnosis and Management of Gallbladder Cancer

Gallbladder cancer is a rare disease with a poor prognosis. The overall 5-year survival rate is 19%, ranging from 65% for localized cancers to 28% for regional and less than 2% for distant or metastatic disease


Management of Premalignant Lesions of the Endometrium

Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic cancer in the U.S., with 66,750 new cases and 12,940 deaths annually.


Endometrial Cancer

Uterine cancer is the sixth most common cancer among women, accounting for 4.5% of female cancers diagnosed worldwide in 2020. The prevalence of uterine cancer has risen in recent decades, particularly in developed countries in North America and Europe


Colon cancer: diagnosis, treatment, and emerging frontiers

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths, among men and women, in the United States. 104,610 new cases of colon cancer are expected in the United States in the year 2020


Surgical Management of Peritoneal Metastases from Colorectal Cancer

The peritoneal cavity is the third most common metastatic site for colorectal cancer (CRC) after the liver and lungs. Approximately 8-13% of CRC patients have synchronous or metachronous peritoneal metastases, with up to 2/3 occurring at the moment of diagnosis


The role of genetic testing and risk stratification in breast cancer prevention and screening

Our understanding of breast cancer has notably evolved from the early ancient times when this malignancy was described as the “black bile containing crab like tumors” by Hippocrates 460 BCE. The advent of modern medicine revolutionized our approach to breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, and further progress was achieved over the past few decades. Our therapies have exponentially improved to match the complexities of this multifaceted malignancy.


Diagnosis and surgical management of early stage breast cancer

Breast cancer has become the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, surpassing lung cancer in 2021. While breast cancer mortality has decreased in high-income countries, it continues to be elevated in low-middle and low-income countries


Breast Cancer Pharmacology

Breast cancer therapies encompass a wide array of medications from different drug classes depending on the cancer’s receptor status. The chapter below will broadly discuss evidence-based therapies for breast cancer including endocrine agents, targeted agents (both oral and intravenous), immunotherapies, and chemotherapies. Please refer to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for the most up to date recommendations or specific citations from this chapter or the guidelines for clinical trial specific information.


Adrenocortical Carcinoma

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and highly lethal malignancy, representing 0.02% of all carcinomas. With an incidence of 2.5 cases per million individuals and generating a 5-year survival of less than 25% for advanced cancers, it remains a significant clinical challenge as effective systemic therapy options continue to evade clinicians and scientists [1, 2]. In general, patients present with advanced disease (20%-40% metastatic) owing to limited screening modalities, and the retroperitoneal location of the tumor which facilitates extensive invasion and growth before symptoms arise [3, 4].


Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is the third most common gynecologic cancer worldwide and a woman’s lifetime risk of disease development is 1.3%.[1] The American Cancer Society has estimated that in 2020, about 21,750 women will be newly diagnosed and about 13,940 women will die from ovarian cancer. Based on this, ovarian cancer would rank fifth in the United States (US), with respect to cancer deaths among women.[2] The term “ovarian cancer” is often used to describe a single diagnosis. In reality, “ovarian cancer” includes a diverse group of malignancies that affect the ovary, fallopian tube and peritoneum.


Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed malignancy in the world, following lung cancer. Every year, nearly two million women across the globe are diagnosed with breast cancer. It is also the leading cause of cancer mortality in women in the world. Fortunately, with advances in screening and systemic therapies, breast cancer outcomes are improving.

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