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Oncology

Cancer and recommendations for Covid-19 vaccination


Several national and international health organizations recommend that current and recent cancer patients should be fully vaccinated against COVID-19

16/11/2022

Malignant Pleural Effusion


Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) indicates advanced disease and incidence is expected to increase with increase in cancer diagnoses and longer survival as cancer therapies evolve. Malignant pleural effusion is most commonly seen in lung cancer, breast cancer, and lymphoma and is associated with poor survival, median of 3-12 months after diagnosis, depending on tumor type, comorbidities, functional status

28/10/2022

Esophageal Cancer: symptoms, staging and treatment


Esophageal cancer is the seventh most common cancer among men and the 13th most common cancer among women, making it the eighth most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide

26/10/2022

Gastric Adenocarcinoma


Gastric cancer is the third-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, accounting for approximately 1 in 12 of all oncologic deaths (Rawla; Global Cancer Observatory). In 2018, there were an estimated 783,000 gastric cancer deaths, just behind those reported for lung and liver cancer deaths. Gastric cancer is the fifth-most common cancer worldwide with over one million new cases annually. East Asia has the highest incidence of gastric cancer. Overall, the incidence and number of deaths attributable to gastric cancer has risen over the past 2-3 decades (GBD stomach).

24/10/2022

Pancreatic Cancer


There will be approximately 57,600 new pancreatic cancer diagnoses in the United States in 2020. While the incidence has been stable over the last decade in the United States at a rate of 12.3-12.8 cases per 100,000 persons, worldwide, the incidence of pancreatic cancer has risen 2.3-fold since 1990, resulting in 400,000 deaths in 2017 alone

19/10/2022

Current Diagnostics and Treatments for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors


Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) arise from endocrine cells, sometimes referred to as islet cells, within the pancreas. The hormone producing islet cells cluster into small groups, known as islets of Langerhans, or simply islets, throughout the pancreas

17/10/2022

Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma


Cholangiocarcinomas (CCA) are a heterogenous group of rare malignancies that arise from the biliary tract epithelium. CCA subtypes, which include intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA), perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA), and distal cholangiocarcinoma (dCCA), have distinct anatomic, biologic, and molecular characteristics. iCCAs arise proximal to the second order bile ducts

14/10/2022

The Diagnosis and Management of Gallbladder Cancer


Gallbladder cancer is a rare disease with a poor prognosis. The overall 5-year survival rate is 19%, ranging from 65% for localized cancers to 28% for regional and less than 2% for distant or metastatic disease

13/10/2022

Management of Premalignant Lesions of the Endometrium


Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic cancer in the U.S., with 66,750 new cases and 12,940 deaths annually.

10/10/2022

Endometrial Cancer


Uterine cancer is the sixth most common cancer among women, accounting for 4.5% of female cancers diagnosed worldwide in 2020. The prevalence of uterine cancer has risen in recent decades, particularly in developed countries in North America and Europe

7/10/2022

Colon cancer: diagnosis, treatment, and emerging frontiers


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths, among men and women, in the United States. 104,610 new cases of colon cancer are expected in the United States in the year 2020

3/10/2022

The role of genetic testing and risk stratification in breast cancer prevention and screening


Our understanding of breast cancer has notably evolved from the early ancient times when this malignancy was described as the “black bile containing crab like tumors” by Hippocrates 460 BCE. The advent of modern medicine revolutionized our approach to breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, and further progress was achieved over the past few decades. Our therapies have exponentially improved to match the complexities of this multifaceted malignancy.

29/09/2022

Diagnosis and surgical management of early stage breast cancer


Breast cancer has become the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, surpassing lung cancer in 2021. While breast cancer mortality has decreased in high-income countries, it continues to be elevated in low-middle and low-income countries

28/09/2022

Breast Cancer Pharmacology


Breast cancer therapies encompass a wide array of medications from different drug classes depending on the cancer’s receptor status. The chapter below will broadly discuss evidence-based therapies for breast cancer including endocrine agents, targeted agents (both oral and intravenous), immunotherapies, and chemotherapies. Please refer to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for the most up to date recommendations or specific citations from this chapter or the guidelines for clinical trial specific information.

26/09/2022

Adrenocortical Carcinoma


Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and highly lethal malignancy, representing 0.02% of all carcinomas. With an incidence of 2.5 cases per million individuals and generating a 5-year survival of less than 25% for advanced cancers, it remains a significant clinical challenge as effective systemic therapy options continue to evade clinicians and scientists [1, 2]. In general, patients present with advanced disease (20%-40% metastatic) owing to limited screening modalities, and the retroperitoneal location of the tumor which facilitates extensive invasion and growth before symptoms arise [3, 4].

26/01/2022

Ovarian Cancer


Ovarian cancer is the third most common gynecologic cancer worldwide and a woman’s lifetime risk of disease development is 1.3%.[1] The American Cancer Society has estimated that in 2020, about 21,750 women will be newly diagnosed and about 13,940 women will die from ovarian cancer. Based on this, ovarian cancer would rank fifth in the United States (US), with respect to cancer deaths among women.[2] The term “ovarian cancer” is often used to describe a single diagnosis. In reality, “ovarian cancer” includes a diverse group of malignancies that affect the ovary, fallopian tube and peritoneum.

22/11/2021

Breast Cancer


Breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed malignancy in the world, following lung cancer. Every year, nearly two million women across the globe are diagnosed with breast cancer. It is also the leading cause of cancer mortality in women in the world. Fortunately, with advances in screening and systemic therapies, breast cancer outcomes are improving.

7/10/2021

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